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Preparation and administration

Preparing VYXEOS1

VYXEOS is straightforward to prepare for infusion. View the instructions below or download the preparation instructions.

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How to prepare

Steps for preparing VYXEOS

VYXEOS is a hazardous drug. Follow applicable special handling and disposal procedures.

Equilibrate the appropriate number of vials of VYXEOS to room temperature for 30 minutes.

Reconstitute and further dilute VYXEOS prior to intravenous infusion.

1 Circle

Reconstitute each vial with 19 mL of sterile water for injection using a sterile syringe

  • Carefully swirl the contents of the vial for 5 minutes while gently inverting the vial every 30 seconds
  • Do not heat, vortex, or shake vigorously
Clock After reconstitution, let product rest for 15 minutes

VYXEOS is reconstituted when the product is an opaque, purple homogeneous dispersion, essentially free from visible particulates

  • After reconstitution, but before final dilution, each mL of VYXEOS will contain
    2.2 mg of daunorubicin and 5 mg of cytarabine

Use the reconstituted solution immediately. If needed, store the reconstituted solution in the vial refrigerated at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) for up to 4 hours. Note that the reconstituted product in the vial and the reconstituted product which has been diluted into an infusion solution are stable for a total of 4 hours (not 4 hours each) when stored at 2°C to 8°C.

Calculate the appropriate volume of reconstituted VYXEOS for intravenous infusion.

2 Circle

Use the formula below to calculate how much VYXEOS needs to be administered to your patient

  • The number of VYXEOS vials needed is based on the daunorubicin dose and the patient’s body surface area (BSA)

Gently invert each vial 5 times prior to withdrawing the reconstituted product for further dilution.

Aseptically withdraw the calculated volume of the reconstituted VYXEOS and transfer to an infusion bag.

3 Circle

Transfer the calculated volume to an infusion bag containing 500 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP or 5% Dextrose Injection, USP

  • Discard any unused portion or residual product remaining in the vial and do not save any unused portions for later administration

Gently invert the bag to mix the solution

  • The dilution of the reconstituted product results in a deep purple, translucent, homogenous dispersion, free from visible particulates
  • Only solutions without visible particulates should be used

If the diluted infusion solution is not used immediately, store in a refrigerator at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) for up to 4 hours. If the reconstituted solution in the vial was stored for 4 hours, the diluted infusion solution must be used immediately and cannot be stored for an additional 4 hours.

Please refer to the full Prescribing Information for VYXEOS for complete preparation and handling instructions, including BOXED Warning.

Calculate the number of vials of VYXEOS needed based on the daunorubicin dose and the patient’s BSA using the following equation:

Dose of daunorubicin (mg/m2) Multiple Patient’s BSA (m2)
2.2 mg/mL
Equals Volume
required (mL)

Each vial contains 20 mL of
solution after reconstitution.2


VYXEOS is indicated for the treatment of newly-diagnosed therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t‑AML) or AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC) in adults and pediatric patients 1 year and older.

Important Safety Information Open Close


VYXEOS has different dosage recommendations than daunorubicin hydrochloride injection, cytarabine injection, daunorubicin citrate liposome injection, and cytarabine liposome injection. Verify drug name and dose prior to preparation and administration to avoid dosing errors.


VYXEOS is contraindicated in patients with a history of serious hypersensitivity reactions to cytarabine, daunorubicin, or any component of the formulation.

Warnings and Precautions

Serious or fatal hemorrhage events, including fatal CNS hemorrhages, associated with prolonged thrombocytopenia, have occurred with VYXEOS. The overall incidence (grade 1-5) of hemorrhagic events was 74% in the VYXEOS arm and 56% in the control arm. The most frequently reported hemorrhagic event was epistaxis (36% in VYXEOS arm and 18% in control arm). Grade 3 or greater events occurred in 12% of VYXEOS-treated patients and in 8% of patients in the control arm. Fatal treatment-emergent CNS hemorrhage not in the setting of progressive disease occurred in 2% of patients in the VYXEOS arm and in 0.7% of patients in the control arm. Monitor blood counts regularly and administer platelet transfusion support as required.


VYXEOS contains daunorubicin, which has a known risk of cardiotoxicity. This risk may be increased in patients with prior anthracycline therapy, preexisting cardiac disease, previous radiotherapy to the mediastinum, or concomitant use of cardiotoxic drugs. Assess cardiac function prior to VYXEOS treatment and repeat prior to consolidation and as clinically required. Discontinue VYXEOS in patients with impaired cardiac function unless the benefit of initiating or continuing treatment outweighs the risk. VYXEOS is not recommended in patients with cardiac function that is less than normal.

Total cumulative doses of non-liposomal daunorubicin greater than 550 mg/m2 have been associated with an increased incidence of drug-induced congestive heart failure. The tolerable limit appears lower
(400 mg/m2) in patients who received radiation therapy to the mediastinum. Calculate the lifetime cumulative anthracycline exposure prior to each cycle of VYXEOS. VYXEOS is not recommended in patients whose lifetime anthracycline exposure has reached the maximum cumulative limit.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Serious or fatal hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic reactions, have been reported with daunorubicin and cytarabine. Monitor patients for hypersensitivity reactions. If a mild or moderate hypersensitivity reaction occurs, interrupt or slow the rate of infusion with VYXEOS and manage symptoms. If a severe or life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction occurs, discontinue VYXEOS permanently, treat the symptoms, and monitor until symptoms resolve.

Copper Overload

VYXEOS contains copper. Consult with a hepatologist and nephrologist with expertise in managing acute copper toxicity in patients with Wilson’s disease treated with VYXEOS. Monitor total serum copper, serum non-ceruloplasmin-bound copper, 24-hour urine copper levels, and serial neuropsychological examinations during VYXEOS treatment in patients with Wilson’s disease or other copper-related metabolic disorders. Use only if the benefits outweigh the risks. Discontinue in patients with signs or symptoms of acute copper toxicity.

Tissue Necrosis

Daunorubicin has been associated with severe local tissue necrosis at the site of drug extravasation. Administer VYXEOS by the intravenous route only. Confirm patency of intravenous access before administration. Do not administer by intramuscular or subcutaneous route.

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

VYXEOS can cause embryo-fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Patients should avoid becoming pregnant while taking VYXEOS. If VYXEOS is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking VYXEOS, apprise the patient of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females and males of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 6 months following the last dose of VYXEOS.


The most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥25%) are hemorrhagic events (74%), febrile neutropenia (70%), rash (56%), edema (55%), nausea (49%), mucositis (48%), diarrhea (48%), constipation (42%), musculoskeletal pain (43%), fatigue (39%), abdominal pain (36%), dyspnea (36%), headache (35%), cough (35%), decreased appetite (33%), arrhythmia (31%), pneumonia (31%), bacteremia (29%), chills (27%), sleep disorders (26%), and vomiting (25%).

Please see full Prescribing Information, including BOXED Warning.

References: 1. VYXEOS [package insert]. Palo Alto, CA: Jazz Pharmaceuticals. 2. Data on File (VYX-2022-022). Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc.